Secure multiparty computation
Synonyms: Secure computation, multiparty computation (MPC), privacy-preserving computation

  • Secure multiparty computation (MPC / SMPC) is a cryptographic protocol that distributes computation across multiple parties where no individual party can see the other parties' data;
  • Secure multiparty computation protocols enable data scientists and analysts to collectively, securely and confidentially compute on distributed data without ever exposing or moving it;
  • Such protocols can be implemented to withstand quantum attacks. Moreover, they remain secure against adversaries with limitless computational power.
More on the topic

Current applications usually involve both computation and encryption, with some results deriving from calculations on encrypted data. The two main approaches in this area are homomorphic encryption and secure multiparty computation.

Secure multiparty computation (MPC) allows two or more parties to compute on their inputs, concealing the input data from each other. MPC can be information-theoretically secure, i.e. it does not rely on security assumptions. Such protocols are protected from adversaries with unlimited computational power, either classical or quantum. This property has a positive effect on protocol efficiency.

Since the security of MPC protocols does not depend on how complex specific computational tasks are, they often allow for faster implementations using a smaller primary field for data representations. The main benefits of MPC are as follows:

  • There is no need to trust a third party to keep data safe;
  • There is no need to mask or drop any features to preserve data privacy;
  • The approach is resistant to quantum attacks.
What areas can benefit from secure multiparty computation?

Secure multiparty computation can be used in many areas of data protection. Some of the most popular areas are:
  • E-voting;
  • E-auctions;
  • Privacy-preserving statistics;
  • Distributed computing.
Therefore, MPC is a promising tool for solving various challenges of sensitive information processing that modern businesses might be facing.

How to decide whether secure multiparty computation are the right choice for you?

1. Analyze the sensitive information processing tasks to be performed, determining the suitability of secure multiparty computation protocols for your particular situation;.
2. Select and implement cryptographic algorithms optimal for solving the challenges defined in Step 1, taking quantum threat into account;
3. Design, pilot and implement secure multiparty computation solutions together with the QApp team.